Word formation

Formation des adjectifs en anglais

En anglais, les adjectifs se forment le plus souvent en ajoutant un préfixe ou un suffixe au mot. Ci-dessous, la liste des préfixes et des suffixes utilisés pour former des adjectifs :

Avec des suffixes :

Adjectives in –Y : cloud= cloudy ; rain= rainy; fun= funny

Adjectives in –LY: day= daily; week= weekly; friend= friendly

Adjectives in –FUL: care= careful; wonder= wonderful; play= playful

Adjectives in –LESS: care= careless; cloud= cloudless; friend= friendless

Adjectives in –ISH: English; British; grey= greyish

Adjectives in – ABLE: misery= miserable; comfort= comfortable;

Adjectives in – ERN: North= Northern; west= western

Adjectives in – ING: amuse=amusing; interest= interesting;

Adjectives in –IC: poet= poetic; roman= romantic; domestic

Adjectives in –OUS: danger= dangerous; nerve= nervous;

Avec des prefixes :

Adjectives in UN: able= unable; happy= unhappy; easy= uneasy

Adjectives in IN: correct= incorrect; excusable= inexcusable; sane= insane.

PLURAL FORM OF NOUNS

 Le pluriel des noms en Anglais constitue un véritable casse tête pour les élèves. Nous avons dressé ci dessous, la liste de quelques cas de noms en fonction de leurs terminaisons et les formes de pluriel que ceci implique.

 

Pour la plupart des noms, on ajoute juste -s

  Pour les noms se terminant en  s, x, z, ch or sh, ajoutez  -es
Singular Plural   Singular Plural
hand hands   box boxes
rabbit rabbits   pitch pitches
key keys   wish wishes
clock clocks   boss bosses
Tree Trees   buzz buzzes
door doors   glass glasses
      class classes

     Noms qui se terminent par  o, on ajoute -es

    Exceptions
Singular Plural   Singular Plural
potato potatoes   cello cellos
tomato tomatoes   disco discos
hero heroes   hairdo hairdos
echo echoes   logo logos
banjo banjoes   patio patios
    photo photos
  piano pianos
  radio radios

    Mots se terminant en  F, changent  le  F pour le V et on ajoute es

    Exceptions
Singular Plural   Singular Plural
half halves   chief chiefs
loaf loaves   cliff cliffs
elf elves   ref refs
leaf leaves   roof roofs
self selves    
shelf shelves  
thief thieves  
wolf wolves  

     Noms se terminant en  ife, changent  le  F pour  le V  and then add -s
 Noms se terminant par une consonne suivie de  y, changent le y pour le  i et on ajoute  -es

     
Singular Plural   Singular Plural
wife wives   poppy poppies
life lives   fly flies
knife knives   penny pennies
      spy spies
      nappy nappies
      sty sties
Noms invariables   Pluriel irrégulier
Singular Plural   Singular Plural
fish fish   person people
sheep sheep   child children
deer deer   ox oxen
tuna tuna   foot feet
salmon salmon   tooth teeth
trout trout   goose geese
      mouse mice
      louse lice
      man men
      Brother Brethren (ou Brothers)

 

  CONDITIONAL OR IF CLAUSES

 if clauses Les conditional clauses of IF clauses comprennent deux types de phrases: 1- Une phrase subordonnée qui contient la condition IF et une seconde phrase qui est dite "result" clause qui contient le résultat. Il s'agit donc dans ce type de phrases, de conditions à réunir (1) pour que se produise un évènement, une action (phrase 2). La structure de ces phrases est la suivante:

  1.  Hypothèse simple ou 1st Conditional: Dans le cas d'une hypothèse simple.

   If + verbe au simple present dans la première phrase = futur -shall, will, may-  (dans le result clause). Note: Shall, will, may lorsqu'ils sont utilisés avec un verbe, ce dernier garde sa forme de base

          if clauses If it rains, everyone will/shall/may stay indoors
            S'il pleut, chacun reste à la maison

 2. Hypothèse incertaine ou souhait, vœux ou 2nd Conditional

 If + verbe au prétérit ou simple past tense  dans la première phrase) = conditionnel (would, should, might, could) dans le result clause

          if clauses  If it rained, everyone would stay indoors
             S'il pleuvait, chacun resterait à la maison (mais il ne pleut pas).

NB Lorsqu'on émet un souhait, un vœux, on utilise were à la place de was, même si le pronom personnel est "I" Ex. If I were you, i would accept the job, ou alors comme dit Beyonce, If I were a boy, i would travel...or dans les deux on n'est ni l'un ni l'autre, on émet juste des sohaits, des voeux, des propositions...

3. Hypothèse non réalisée ou 3rd Conditional:

If + verbe pluperfect (past perfect) (dans la subordonnée) = conditionnel passé ou conditional present perfect (result clause).

            if clauses If it had rained, everyone would have stayed indoors. 

if clausesNote: il existe une autre forme du 3rd Conditional. Ainsi au lieu d'utiliser If, on inverse plutôt le verbe comme l'indique la structure suivante: Had it rained, i would have stayed indoors

RELATIVE CLAUSES

      Les phrases relatives (relative clauses) sont des courtes phrases avec des mots tels que who, which qui sont appelés des pronoms relatifs qui définissent ou décrivent des personnes, des choses, des animaux. Liste des pronoms relatifs.

  • Who/Whom/ to whom sont utilisés pour des personnes. Who est pronom relatif sujet alors que Whom est pronom relatif complément: Ex. The man who (qui) is coming is the director. The man whom (que) you saw is the director. The man to whom you spoke is the director.
  • Which/that sont utilisés pour des personnes, des choses, des animaux. Ils sont aussi bien complément que sujet. Ex. The bus which (qui) goes to Cairo leaves from here. The bus which (que) you saw goes to Cairo. The road that (que) we took led to an ancien temple.
  • Whose (dont) montre que quelque chose appartient à quelqu'un. The girl whose car had been stolen went to the police station. Notez que lorsqu'on utilise whose celui ci s'intercale entre deux mots que nous avons souligné.(girl & car)

 

relative pronoun use example
who  subject or object pronoun for people I told you about the woman who lives next door.
which  subject or object pronoun for animals and things Do you see the cat which is lying on the roof?
which  referring to a whole sentence He couldn’t read which surprised me.
whose  possession for people animals and things Do you know the boy whose mother is a nurse?
whom object pronoun for people, especially in non-defining relative clauses (in defining relative clauses we colloquially prefer who) I was invited by the professor whom I met at the conference.
that subject or object pronoun for people, animals and things in defining relative clauses (who or which are also possible) I don’t like the table that stands in the kitchen.

 

Prepositions           adapted from www.ego4u.com

other propositions

English

Usage

Example

  • From
  • who gave it
  • a present from Jane
  • Of
  • who/what does it belong to
  • what does it show
  • a page of the book
  • the picture of a palace
  • By
  • who made it
  • a book by Mark Twain
  • On
  • walking or riding on horseback
  • entering a public transport vehicle
  • on foot, on horseback
  • get on the bus
  • In
  • entering a car  / Taxi
  • get in the car
  • Off
  • leaving a public transport vehicle
  • get off the train
  • Out of
  • leaving a car  / Taxi
  • get out of the taxi
  • By
  • rise or fall of something
  • travelling (other than walking or horseriding)
  • prices have risen by 10 percent
  • by car, by bus
  • At
  • for age
  • she learned Russian at 45
  • About
  • for topics, meaning what about
  • we were talking about you

Place proposition (position/direction)

English

Usage

Example

  • in
  • room, building, street, town, country
  • book, paper etc.
  • car, taxi
  • picture, world
  • in the kitchen, in London
  • in the book
  • in the car, in a taxi
  • in the picture, in the world
  • at
  • meaning next to, by an object
  • for table
  • for events
  • place where you are to do something typical (watch a film, study, work)
  • at the door, at the station
  • at the table
  • at a concert, at the party
  • at the cinema, at school, at work
  • on
  • attached
  • for a place with a river
  • being on a surface
  • for a certain side (left, right)
  • for a floor in a house
  • for public transport
  • for television, radio
  • the picture on the wall
  • London lies on the Thames.
  • on the table
  • on the left
  • on the first floor
  • on the bus, on a plane
  • on TV, on the radio
  • by, next to, beside
  • left or right of somebody or something
  • Jane is standing by / next to / beside the car.
  • under
  • on the ground, lower than (or covered by) something else
  • the bag is under the table
  • below
  • lower than something else but above ground
  • the fish are below the surface
  • over
  • covered by something else
  • meaning more than
  • getting to the other side (also across)
  • overcoming an obstacle
  • put a jacket over your shirt
  • over 16 years of age
  • walk over the bridge
  • climb over the wall
  • above
  • higher than something else, but not directly over it
  • a path above the lake
  • across
  • getting to the other side (also over)
  • getting to the other side
  • walk across the bridge
  • swim across the lake
  • through
  • something with limits on top, bottom and the sides
  • drive through the tunnel
  • to
  • movement to person or building
  • movement to a place or country
  • for bed
  • go to the cinema
  • go to London / Ireland
  • go to bed
  • into
  • enter a room / a building
  • go into the kitchen / the house
  • towards
  • movement in the direction of something (but not directly to it)
  • go 5 steps towards the house
  • onto
  • movement to the top of something
  • jump onto the table
  • from
  • in the sense of where from
  • a flower from the garden

Time proposition

English

Usage

Example

  • On
  • days of the week
  • on Monday
  • In
  • months / seasons
  • time of day
  • year
  • after a certain period of time (when?)
  • in August / in winter
  • in the morning
  • in 2006
  • in an hour
  • At
  • for night
  • for weekend
  • a certain point of time (when?)
  • at night
  • at the weekend
  • at half past nine
  • Since
  • from a certain point of time (past till now)
  • since 1980
  • For
  • over a certain period of time (past till now)
  • for 2 years
  • Ago
  • a certain time in the past
  • 2 years ago
  • Before
  • earlier than a certain point of time
  • before 2004
  • To
  • telling the time
  • ten to six (5:50)
  • past
  • telling the time
  • ten past six (6:10)
  • To / till / until
  • marking the beginning and end of a period of time
  • from Monday to/till Friday
  • till / until
  • in the sense of how long something is going to last
  • He is on holiday until Friday.
  • By
  • in the sense of at the latest
  • up to a certain time
  • I will be back by 6 o’clock.
  • By 11 o'clock, I had read five pages.
  •  

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Date de dernière mise à jour : dimanche, 10 Janvier 2016

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