Linking Words

 

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LINKING WORDS  Dans cette catégorie, vous trouverez la liste des différents mots de liaison et leurs emplois respectifs

     Coordination (conjonctions de)

But

Mais

Or

Ou

And

Et

Thus

Donc

Neither a nor b

Ni a ni b

Because

Car

 

                                     Addition

Besides

D'ailleurs

Furthermore

En outre, de plus

Moreover

De plus

What is more

Qui plus est, bien plus

By the way

Soit dit en passant

In addition

De surcroit, en outre

In fact

En fait

In other words

En d'autres termes

That is to say

C'est-à-dire

                        BUT 

So that

Afin que

So as to [+verb]

Pour que [+ verbe]

In order to

Afin de

For

Pour

To this end

A cet effet

                       Cause

Because

Parce que

Because of

En raison de

As

Comme

For

Car

Thanks to

Grâce à

Due to

Du au fait que

On account of

Etant donné que

Given that

Etant donné que

                     Comparaison

As though

Comme si

As if

Comme si

In comparison

Par comparaison

                            Concession

Although

Bien que

Though

Bien que

Even though

Même si

in spite of

Malgré

Despite

Malgré

All the same

Malgré tout

              Contraste et Opposition

Instead of

Au lieu de

nevertheless

Néanmoins, toutefois

Notwithstanding

Nonobstant, néanmoins

Otherwise

Sinon, autrement

Else

Sinon

Whereas

Tandis, alors que

Yet

Cependant, pourtant

Conversely

Inversement

However

Cependant, toutefois

By contrast

Par opposition

                       Restriction

As far as

Dans la mesure de

As long as

Du moment où

                      Condition

Provided

A condition que

Unless

A moins que

As long as

Du moment que, à condition que

Otherwise

Sinon, autrement

Then

Alors

 

                      Conséquence

So that

De telle sorte que

So much that

A tel point que

Consequently

En conséquence

As a result

En conséquence

Therefore

Par conséquent

That is why

C'est pourquoi

This is because

C'est parce que, la raison en est que

Thus

Ainsi

Hence

D'où

 

1- Temps: when, as soon as, since, before, after, till/until, while

 2- Condition, hypothèse: If, even, if, unless, as long as, in case, whether

3- But: to/in order to /so as to, so that/ in order that

 4- Cause: because, as/ since, for

 5- Concession, restriction: Though, although, whereas, while

 6- Résultat: So, so that/ such…as

  Linking words: signification/emploi.

1- Although/Though : Bien que, Quoi que: opposition, contraste entre deux situations) .

Ex. Although he is very old, he is still quite strong.

Ex. Though the weather was cold, we still went out

2- All the same (Malgré tout, Malgré cela). Ex. He is not easy to live with; all the same i love him

3- As (1- Comme = Cause, 2- Comparaison).

a- Ex. As we spent enough time without eating, we were very hungry.

b-Ex - When in Rome, do as roman do

4- As soon as (Dès que) Ex. As soon as i reach Paris, i will call you

5- As long as: (Pourvu que + condition) Ex. Do what you want as long as it does not disturb those who are sleeping

6- As if/As though (Comme si: comparaison) Ex. He behaved as if/as though he had seen the scientist before

7- Because (Parce que : cause) Ex.He was punished because he had been insolant to his teacher.

8- Because of (A cause de... cause) Ex.She was chosen because of her beauty

9- Despite/in spite of (Malgré, en dépit de + concession, restriction)

Ex. Despite his great fortune, he is a man of simple taste.

Ex. In spite of the rain, we still went out.

10- Even though (bien que= concession) Ex He went on walking even though he was exhausted.

11- Even if (Même si = conditionEx. Even if they gave it to me, i would not want it.

12- For (car + cause) Ex. She was vey shy (timide) for (car) she didn't know any of the guests

13- For (depuis, pendant + temps) Ex. We have been playing football for two hours Note: For dans ce cas s'utilise toujours avec des notions renvoyant à la durée (heures, minutes, jours, mois, années)

14- Hence (D'où=conséquence) Ex. He has no health problems, hence his sudden death came as a great surprise.

15- In order to (ne pas confondre avec in other to qui n'a d'ailleurs pas de sens) (Pour, dans le but de -but-) Ex. I woke up early in order to arrive to school on time.

16- Nevertheless (nonetheless) (pourtant, néanmoins = concession) Ex. They don't get on well together; nevertheless, they still live together.

17- On condition that/Provided (providing) that (à condition que = condition) Ex. I will lend you my car, but on condition that you drive carefully.

18- Otherwise (sinon = strong condition) Ex. You must (au lieu de should moral obligation) study hard, otherwise you will fail you exam.

19- Owing to (à cause de = conséquence) Ex. Owing to it poor results, our team was eliminated in the first round.

20- Since (puisque = cause) (depuis= temps)

Ex 1 We have to take a taxi since we missed the bus.

Ex 2 His English has improved since he has been to the United States. Since est utilisé alors avec des notions renvoyant au point de départ de quelque chose: since my birth, since last year, since 2012, since April

21- So that: Pour que, de façon que (but) Si bien que, de sorte que (Conséquence)

Ex 1 Open the windows so that, we (might) have some fresh air

Ex 2: They bought too many things on credit, so that now they can't pay up.

22- Therefore: Par conséquent, de ce fait (+ conséquence) Ex. The burglar was caught red-handed, and was therefore sent to prison.

23- Till (Until) Jusqu'à ce que (+ temps) Ex Stay here till/until i ask you to come.

24- Unless (à moins que condition négative): Ex. Unless we start planting trees, the desert will advance rapidly.

25- When  1. Quand (temps) 2. Une fois (temps)

Ex 1: I will travel worldwide when i'm older.

Ex 2: When in Cameroon, do as cameroonians do.

26- Whereas (Alors que que = contraste) Ex In western countries the standard of living  is high, whereas in developing countries it's very low.

27- Whether (...or) si si (supposition) Ex. I wonder whether he has seen my call. I don't know whether she will come or not.

28- While a-Pendant que (temps) Ex 1 Jenny was working while her sister was basking in the sun.

b. Tant que, aussi longtemps que (temps) Ex 2. While in london, we will visit the time square

c.correspond aussi à whereas : alors que, tandis que (Contraste) Ex 3. She plays tennis beautifully, while (whereas) her brother is hopeless with a racket.

29- Yet a. Déja (temps) Have you packed your cases yet?

b. Encore (temps) No, not yet.

c. Cependant, pourtant (concession) Ex. Serge is ugly, and yet many women are madly in love with him.

Exercise 1: Choose the among the words in brackets the correct one

1- Alice wanted to study English (as long as, while, so) she went to London to attend a university.

2-  I will stay here (both, as long as, as if) you need me.

3-  Do you know (when, while, after) your parents will return home?

4-  He always plays with his children (do, so, after) he finishes his work

5-  (Though, after, if) it rains, I’ll stay home. I don’t want to catch a cold

6-  There was a lot to do in our house. (while, so, as long as) I was cleaning the windows, my brother was preparing lunch

7-  You can go out (as long as, while, or) you are back by ten o’clock

8-  (Both, when, if) Susan and her sister are invented to my wedding party.

9-  Elli looks (if, as if, when) she hadn’t eaten for days. She is very pale.

Same exercise

1-  (Although, as, because, despite) he is rich and famous, he is not happy

2-  You can borrow my car (in order to, provided, otherwise) you bring it back tomorrow.

3-  (Although, despite, however) her reputation, she is not that good of a writer

4-  To start with, I’ll have a shrimp cocktail, (in order to, provided, then, unless) I’ll try the lobster.

5-  The match will take place (although, despite, because, otherwise) the bad weather conditions.

6-  I work very hard (in order to, otherwise, because) get a promotion

7-  Don’t cross that street (otherwise, despite, unless) you have to

8-  He bought that tie (in order to, because, when) please her

9-  Let her go (otherwise, unless, because) she is going to be late

10-  (As, because, although) it’s raining I’m taking my raincoat

11-  He loves music (despite, although, but) he never goes to concerts.

12-  I opened the window (because, in order to, provided) it was too hot in.

Another exercise: Fill the gaps with: since, when, if, as soon as, although, unless, because, while

1-  Peter called………………………..you were out.

2-  She let him……………………….he was cheating on her.

3-  Don’t come…………………….. I call you!

4-  ………………………………it was very hot she went out with an over coat.

5-  We will go out…………………………………….it stops raining

6-  I am going shopping, ………….you need anything, I’ll buy it

7-  …………………….. I was young, I used to fetch water for Mum

8-  We have been playing football ………………………………8 o’clock.

Rewrite the following sentences without changing their meaning

a)   When I entered the room, he didn’t greet me, he didn’t offer me a seat

a')  …………………………………………………………………………………………

b)   Ali loves Mary, Mary loves Ali

b')  …………………………………………………………………………………………

c)  John was punished. John has cheated

c') …………………………………………………………………………………………………

d)  Lobe is vey hungry. Lobe has nothing to eat.

d') …………………………………………………………………………………………

e) The teacher reprimanded the student. The student kept talking

e') …………………………………………………………………………………………………

f)  The dancer was not tall. The dancer was not slender

f') …………………………………………………………………………………………………

g) Cynthia wants to be a lawyer. Samantha wants to be a TV star

g')  ………………………………………………………………………………………………)  

h)You should give back his money. He will take you to the police

h') ………………………………………………………………………………………………

i) Melanie forgot her lunch. Melanie called her mother

i')…………………………………………………………………………………………………

Complete each sentence with a time word or phrase from the box

Yet, for, since, often, ever, never, already, so far, just, always

 

1-  Louis has lived in the city centre……………………………1996

2-  Thanks for the present, I’ve………………………………wanted a pet goldfish!

3-  Have you…………………..drunk pineapple juice? It’s fantastic:

4-  I’ve…………..heard some fantastic news! I’ve passed my exams.

5-  Hurry up: Haven’t you finished……………..? You’re so slow!

6-  Nina has worked in this company………………five years.

7-  I’ve……………………been on big ship before. It’s an interesting experience!

8-  We’re very busy today………………………….we’ve sold over a hundred bikes.

9- I've.........................passed this bulding, but this is the first time I've been inside.

10-  Can I have a different book? I’ve…………………….read this one.

 
 
 

 

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Date de dernière mise à jour : mardi, 08 Novembre 2016

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